Mammoth Memory

Immune system

The immune system comprises the body’s tools for fighting pathogens (as detailed below).

The immune system is a bodies tool to fight infection

An emu used its system of tools (immune system) to smash up the path of gin (pathogen).

White blood cells

White blood cells defend against pathogens.

White blood cells are specific cells the body produces to destroy pathogens, they do this by ingesting them destroying it

The white cell (white blood cell) contained the path of gin (pathogen) so it couldn’t do any harm.

Phagocytes and lymphocytes 

There are two main types of white blood cell: phagocytes and lymphocytes.

Phagocyte: White blood cell that ingests and absorbs (called consuming) foreign matter and dead cells.

Lymphocyte: White blood cell that produces antibodies and antitoxins. 

Phagocytes is a type of white blood cells that ingest pathogens, foreign matter and dead cells. Lymphocytes is a specialist white blood cell that produces antibodies and antitoxins

Two jailers guard the white cell.  One jailer has a limp and bad eyesight (lymphocyte), and a pet with an ant’s body (antibody) that wears ant socks (antitoxin). The other jailer is smoking a fag and has bad eyesight. (phagocyte).


The action of a phagocyte white blood cell ingesting and absorbing (consuming) foreign and dead matter is called phagocytosis.

Phagocytosis is the action of white blood cells ingesting pathogens

The jailer who likes a fag on site (phagocyte) sometimes plays with the fire hoses (phagocytoses). Although it looks like he is smoking, it is actually a sweet cigarette and he has already consumed half of it.


Never refer to consuming as “eating” in biology.

Example of phagocytosis

Phagocyte ingests and destroys bacteria:

Diagram showing the stages a phagocyte white blood cell destroying pathogens through phagocytosis

Lymphocytes: antibody and antitoxin

An antibody is a protein that latches on to pathogens to make them ineffective.

An antitoxin is a protein that makes a toxin ineffective.

Lymphocytes carry certain proteins these are either antibodies or antitoxins. Antibodies latch onto pathogens to make them ineffective, antitoxins also latches onto toxins that make them ineffective

A protesting teen (protein) riding on an ant’s body (antibody) with its ant socks on (antitoxin) fastened the latch on (latches on) the door and stopped the pathogen and its toxic mate in their tracks.

Example of lymphocyte

Lymphocyte releases antibodies that latch on to antigens:

Image showing the lymphocyte releasing antibodies which attaches onto the pathogen it stops the release of antigens (chemicals produces by pathogens)

 Antibodies are Y shaped and are perfectly shaped by the lymphocyte to stop chemical spread by the pathogen

Antibodies are Y-shaped and are produced by lymphocytes to perfectly fit specific antigen shapes. (See Antigen on next page).

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