Mammoth Physics
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Physics formulas
Gas Laws
Electricity
Magnets and electromagnetism

Magnets
 Magnets attract or repel
 Have you got a magnet?
 Proving which way magnetic lines on a magnet travel
 Earth's magnetic field and compasses
 Creating a compass from a magnet
 Do both poles of a magnet attract a paperclip?
 Manufacturing permanent magnets
 Can I keep cutting a magnet in half?
 Remember which way magnetic field lines on a magnet travel
 How to demagnetise a magnet

Electromagnetism
 Define electromagnetism
 Which way does a compass point in an electromagnetic field with one wire?
 The righthand grip rule of electromagnetism
 Do iron filings stick to wires?
 Magnets create electricity
 One wire vs multiple wires (induction)
 Learn the word induction
 Fleming's lefthand rule and Fleming's righthand rule
 The difference between an ammeter and galvanometer
 Galvanometer
 Fleming's righthand rule (induction)
 Fleming's righthand rule: the mnemonic picture
 What would happen to the rod if the wire was moved in the opposite direction?
 What would happen if the magnets were turned upside down?
 What would happen if you moved the wire from north to south pole?
 Fleming's lefthand rule
 Fleming's lefthand rule: the mnemonic picture
 What would happen to the rod if the current were reversed?
 What would happen to the rod if the magnet were turned upside down?
 What would happen to the rod if both the current and the magnetic field were reversed?
 What would happen to the rod if the magnetic field was stronger?
 Section through a wire: electric flow convention
 Motor effect
 Detailed magnetic field of a wire between two opposing magnetic poles
 How to make an electromagnet
 Strength of an electromagnet (number of coils)
 Strength of an electromagnet (larger battery)
 Which end of an electromagnet is north
 Uses of electromagnetism
 The difference between an electromagnet and a solenoid
 Detailed magnetic field around a solenoid
 Causing an electrical current in a solenoid
 Lenz's law definition
 Plotting all the magnet and solenoid wire configurations
 Inducing an electric current in a single loop
 Drop a magnet through a solenoid

Electric motors
 Define motor
 An electric coil between two magnets
 How to enable a wire to keep rotating
 Electric commutator – definition
 Using a commutator
 Armature
 How to change an electric coil into a motor
 Using a shaft to drive a wheel
 How to make the motor turn the other way
 Increase the force of the motor
 Brushless DC motor
 How to make a simple electric motor
Refraction
 Refraction definition
 Normal line – Flat surfaces
 Refraction – air to water or glass
 Refraction – water or glass to air
 Refraction Mnemonic
 Light passing through a glass brick
 Refraction and spearing a fish
 Refraction and spitting fish
 Refraction and straws
 Angle of incidence and angle of refraction
 Broken pencil
 Snell's law
 Snell's law is a ratio
 Snell's law in use
 Different refractive indices
 Snell's law applies to velocity
 Total internal reflection – slow to fast
 Working out the critical angle
 Small critical angle = high refractive index
 Why total internal reflection is always slow to fast
 Part reflection part refraction
 How to find the critical angle in an experiment
 Diamonds and total internal reflection
 Total internal reflection experiments and optical fibres
 Medical use of optical fibres
 Refraction use – bicycle reflectors
Myopia and hyperopia (short and long sight)
Newton's laws of motion
Transformers
Lenses

Convex lenses
 Convex lens
 Convex lenses and centre of curvature
 Convex lens radius of curvature (R)
 Convex lens principal axis
 Spelling principal and lens
 Convergent rays of light  Convex lens
 Normal line  Convex lens
 Refraction and convex lenses
 Rough surfaces
 One point many rays
 Principal focal point (two of them)
 Which is the principal focus (convergence) point
 Principal focal length
 Principal focal length be careful
 Method for drawing ray diagrams  convex lens
 Object distance and image distance
 Practical ways to find the principal focal length magnifying glasses
 Practical ways to find the principal focal length light  box
 Light box and oblique parallel rays
 Practical ways ways to find the principal focal length  lens equation
 Approximate ways to find the principal focal length
 Principal focal length and centre of curvature
 Principal focus point and refractive index (`n`)
 Real images versus virtual images  convex lens
 Can a real image be seen with the naked eye?
 Convex lens  Object at more than 2F
 Convex lens  Object at 2F
 Convex lens  Object between 2F and F
 Convex lens  Object at F
 Convex lens  Object between lens and F
 Summary ray diagrams
 Convex lenses  What to do in an exam
 Object passes through principal axis
 Convex lens and objects larger than the lens
 Convex lens use  Magnifying glass
 Convex lens use  Microscope
 Convex lens use  Telescope
 Convex lens use  Binoculars
 Convex lens use  Glasses
 Convex lens uses  Camera
 Convex lenses and the lens equation
 Examples using lens equation

Concave lenses
 Concave lens
 Concave lenses – Centre of curvature
 Concave lens – Radius of curvature (R)
 Concave lens – Principal axis
 Divergent rays of light – Concave lens
 Normal line – Concave lens
 Refraction concave lens
 Rough surfaces
 Concave lens – One point many rays
 Concave lens – Principal focal point (two of them)
 Which is the principal focal divergent point?
 Concave lens – Principal focal length
 Concave lens: Principal focal length – be careful
 Method for drawing ray diagrams – Concave lens
 Object distance and image distance – Concave lens
 Practical ways to find the principal focus length – Pins
 Practical ways to find focal length – Concave lens light box
 Light box and oblique parallel rays – Concave lens
 Practical ways to find the principal focal length of a concave lens using a convex lens
 Concave lens – Principal focal length and centre of curvature
 Principal focal point and refractive index
 Real images versus virtual images – Concave lens
 Concave lenses – What can your eye see
 Concave lens – Object at different distances from the lens
 Concave lens – Object passes through principal axis
 Concave lens and objects larger than the lens
 Concave lens use – Galileo's telescope
 Concave lens use – Peephole or door viewer or spy hole
 Concave lens use – Glasses
 Lens equation – Concave lens
 Lens equation – Concave lens and examples
Mirrors

Convex Mirrors
 Convex mirrors
 Convex mirrors and centre of curvature
 Convex mirrors and vertex
 Convex mirrors: radius of curvature
 Convex mirrors: principal axis
 Divergent rays of light  Convex mirrors
 Normal line  Convex mirrors
 Reflection convex mirrors
 Rough surfaces
 Convex mirrors  One point many rays
 Convex mirrors  All round vision
 Principal focal point  Convex mirror
 Which is the principal focal point  Convex mirror
 Principal focal length  Convex mirrors
 Centre of curvature  Convex mirrors
 Practical ways to find the principal focal length  Spherometer
 Real image versus virtual image  Convex mirror
 Using flat mirror ray diagram rules for convex mirrors
 Using the law of reflection  Ray diagram rules
 Convex mirror  Ray diagram rules
 Summary method for drawing ray diagrams  Convex mirror
 Object doesn't touch the principal axis
 Object distance and image distance  Convex mirrors
 Moving the object distance
 Summary of virtual images formed by convex mirrors
 Laterally inverted convex mirror
 Summary ray diagrams convex mirror
 Object passes through the principal axis
 Convex mirrors and objects larger than the mirror
 Convex mirrors use  Car mirrors
 Convex mirrors use  Security
 Convex mirror use  To avoid collisions

Flat Mirrors
 How to draw a mirror
 The three laws of reflection
 Do the three laws of reflection make sense?
 Any mirror obeys the three laws of reflection
 Normal line  Flat mirrors
 Normal line  Tilted flat mirrors
 Normal line and two flat mirrors at right angles
 Using the law of reflection
 Using flat mirrors ray diagram rules
 Ray diagrams flat mirror rules summary
 Flat mirror, tilted, ray diagram
 Flat mirrors  Who can see whom  People in a line
 Flat mirrors  Who can see whom  People random
 Where can an observer see a reflected image?
 How much of an object can an observer see
 Shortest mirror to see full length of your body
 Mirror experiment  Shortest mirror
 Laterally inverted
 Parallax
 To remember the word parallax
 Plane mirrors and parallax experiment