Hard Engineering – The building of artificial structures using materials such as rock, concrete and steel, to reduce, disrupt or stop the impact of the erosion process in rivers
The hard engineer (hard engineering) loved his concrete block.
Hard engineering in rivers include:
Hard engineering in river landscapes involves the building of artificial structures to control rivers. Such projects tend to be expensive.
Hard engineering strategies have advantages and disadvantages, for instance:
|Dams and reservoirs
- More water can be held in the channel, reducing flood risk
- Can improve the river as a shipping route
- Silt from the river makes an excellent fertiliser
- Can be used to produce electricity by placing a turbine within the dam.
- Many reservoirs supply water to towns and cities
- Some reservoirs become tourist attractions
- Speeding up the river increases flood risk downstream.
- Visual intrusion: the natural appearance of the river's course is lost
- High cost
- Dams trap sediment, so reservoir can silt up and hold less water.
- Habitats are flooded, destroying ecosystems
- Homes and settlements may be lost, leading to displacement of people